Structural Heart & Pediatric Heart Diseases


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  • FUNCTIONS OF THE HEART
  • STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • PEDIATRIC HEART DISEASES
  • LIST OF CARDIAC CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN
  • LIST OF CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS SEEN IN CHILDREN
  • FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES
FUNCTIONS OF THE HEART

Heart is the most important organ in the body which receives deoxygenated or impure blood from different parts of the body. This blood is then transported to the lungs for purification and the oxygenated or purified blood is then pumped by the heart to the rest of the body.

STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
  • The Heart is made of three layers of tissues consisting of the outer layer of epicardium, middle layer of myocardium and inner layer of endocardium. Pericardium is the layer protecting all the 3 layer of the heart
  • Heart is divided into 4 chambers called as 2 atriums and 2 ventricles. Atriums are the upper small collecting chambers of the heart and ventricles are the lower large pumping chambers of the heart
  • Septums of the heart: Walls like septums divide the right and left side of the heart. The “Atrial Septum” divides the atriums and the “Ventricular Septum” divides the ventricles of the heart
  • Valves of the heart: Atrio-ventricular valves or cuspid valves separate the atrium from ventricles. The tricuspid valve or the right atrio-ventricular valve divides the right atrium from the right ventricle. The bicuspid valve or the left atrio-ventricular valve divide the left atrium from the left ventricle.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • Around 5 litres of blood is pumped by the heart through the process of circulation
  • There are 2 circulatory mechanisms of the heart are Pulmonary Circulation and Systemic Circulation
  • Pulmonary Circulation: The right side of the heart receives impure blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs for purification via the “Pulmonary Artery”. The right atrium and the right ventricle are involved in pulmonary circulation
  • Systemic Circulation: The left side of the heart receives the purified blood from the lungs and distributes via “Aorta” to the rest of the body (except the heart and lungs). Wastes from the body cells are removed and the deoxygenated blood is returned to the heart for pulmonary circulation
  • Usually arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins carry deoxygenated blood with the only exception of Pulmonary artery and Pulmonary vein performing opposite functions.
PEDIATRIC HEART DISEASES
  • Unlike adults, there is a wide range of heart conditions in children and Congenital heart diseases. Congenital heart diseases are developed in children at the time of birth and may persist in adults if untreated or undiagnosed.
LIST OF CARDIAC CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN
    • Arrhythmia
    • Deletion Disorders
    • High blood pressure
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Heart Failure
    • Kawasaki Disease
    • Congenital Heart Defects
    • Heart Murmurs
    • Rheumatic fever
LIST OF CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS SEEN IN CHILDREN
    • Atrial Septal Defect
    • Ventricular Septal Defect
    • Aortic Stenosis
    • Pulmonary Stenosis
    • Tetralogy of Fallot
    • Atrioventricular Canal Defect
    • Truncus Arteriosus
    • Patent Ductus Arteriosus
    • Transposition of the Great Arteries
    • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
    • Interrupted Aortic Arch
    • Ebstein’s Anomaly
    • Single Ventricle (Functionally Univentricular Heart)
    • Coarctation of the Aorta
    • Pulmonary Atresia
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES
    • Genetics: Lack of certain genes or chromosomes in the child’s DNA and history of congenital heart defects
    • Environmental factors like external factors that affect development of the heart during pregnancy
    • Maternal Factors like exposure of the mother to harmful substances in the first trimester, at the time of heart development in fetus
    • Medication: Certain contraindicated medicines if taken by the mother during pregnancy can cause congenital heart defects
    • Children to mothers on anti-seizure drugs are prone to developing heart defects
    • Mothers with phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of metabolic condition have children with congenital heart defects, if they do not take correct dietary measures
    • Mothers with uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes mellitus may have children prone to these congenital heart defects
    • Pregnant women infected with the Rubella virus has a high chance of giving birth to a baby with congenital heart defects.

At Care For Your Heart we provide comprehensive cardiac treatment to all our patients.


heart specialist in mumbai


Heart Specialist In Mumbai




heart specialist in mumbai

Heart Specialist In Mumbai





For Interventions :
Wockhardt Heart Institute (Mumbai Central), Fortis Raheja Hospital (Mahim), Breach Candy Hospital (Peddar Road), Masina heart institute (Byculla), Somaiya Superspeciality Hospital (Sion)








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